The assignment of students in schools is diverse, free choice in the private, school map in the public with waivers for a minority. The system has undergone a recent reform and now goes on the internet. Pierre Merle shows how this new procedure reinforces social segregation in certain situations and then opens ways to remedy it.
Whatever the educational system, the allocation of students in schools is carried out according to three models: free choice of parents, regulated Assignment Writing Help mixed model that combines the two previous ones. The singularity of the French school lies in the coexistence of the three models: free choice for private institutions ; school assignment governed by a school card for the majority of students, recourse to derogations from the school board for a minority [ 1 ] . In the early 2000s, for entry into high school, a PAM procedure , Automatic Pre-assignment Multicriteria , was tested and, at the start of the school year 2008, this procedure was generalized within the framework of affelnet, affassignment of el Eves by the net. What are the challenges of this new policy ? What results have been achieved ?
Three unavoidable issues
In both high schools and colleges, three issues justify the interest in student Assignment Writing Help policies. First, the search for an economic optimum. When more than five million middle and high school students are in school, classes, teachers and administrative staff are needed to accommodate them satisfactorily. The creation of the school map, in 1963, is directly linked to the extension of schooling up to 16 years decided by the Berthon reform: the new colleges, built taking into account the number of children to school by municipality and per district, were to be fully utilized. In 2007, when the possibilities of derogations from the school map were significantly enlarged, ; Grenet and Fack, 2012) and, at the same time, attractive and overcrowded colleges could no longer accommodate overcrowded students. The more freedom parents have in choosing the schooling school for their children, the greater the collective costs associated with this freedom. Some colleges are even decommissioned or destroyed when they are too deserted by students. New colleges are then built in more attractive neighborhoods.
A second issue of the methods of assigning students to schools is of a socio-political nature. The old Durkheim aphorism (1922) – ” The class is a small society ” – has kept all its relevance. The school is not only a way of grouping youth, it is also a structural place of socialization, of the construction of linguistic universes, of cognitive processes, of modes of self-presentation, of elective affinities, highly differentiated academic and professional aspirations by sector and class. All research converge on a definite result: freedom of choice for parents promotes the inter se, that is to say social segregation (Merle, 2012b ; OECD, 2014). It must be concluded that the greater the freedom of choice, the more schools, the central socialization and learning bodies, are socially differentiated and sources of variation in teaching content, student performance, orientations and the duration of schooling (Merle, 2012c). By promoting the affluence of the well-to-do, the free choice tends to transform the school of the beautiful districts into functional complement of the habitat and the family, privileged places of social reproduction (Pinçon and Pinçon-Charlot, 2007).
The final issue of student assignment is the quality of education systems. The choice of free choice of the institution considers that it promotes competition between institutions and, for this reason, the effectiveness of the education system. This widespread idea is based on ideology and not analysis: competition between schools, directly related to the free choice of parents, is not an explanatory variable of the level of skills of students ( OECD , 2014). Both national and international research converge on another finding Resume Makers The lack of choice or a regulated choice of parental demands favors social mix, an efficiency factor: the average level of pupils is globally higher in socially mixed school systems. [ 2 ] . Social diversity is also a factor of equity. This is defined doubly. When equity is low, on the one hand the skill gap is greater between strong and weak students and, on the other hand, the correlation between social origin and achievement increases.
As the PISA studies show , the French school system is one of the most inequitable in developed countries, and the latest PISA survey, published in 2013, confirmed this growing specificity of the French school. For example, school drop-out, which is particularly high in France and a highly predictive indicator of school career, is the variable most strongly correlated with the social origin of students. The repetition rate for students of disadvantaged origin is almost six times higher than that for students of wealthy origin (Chart 1 below). The low equity of the French school is partly related to the procedures for allocating students and the low level of inter-institutional social mix that results. The recommendations of the OECD explicitly confirm this link: ” Adopt policies that enhance the vertical and horizontal inclusion [that is to say that increase the inter-sector and social mix within schools] is one of the best ways to achieve equity “( OECD , 2011 ).
These three issues justify the establishment of Affelnet procedure whose objective is to increase the social mix of schools. Has this new assignment procedure reached its goal ?
Graph 1: Rate of late entry into sixth grade
according to student characteristics (in %)
The Afforded Student Allocation Procedure and its Assessment
The affelnet procedure is based on a school Resume Makers of each child according to several criteria: the status of a fellow, the pupils’ academic results, the reconciliation of siblings, a choice of high schools classified by the parents in descending order of priority, a notice possible head of school likely to support more or less the demands of families … Each criterion is assigned a number of points and is subject to a weighting.
Evaluating the affelnet procedure is difficult for several reasons. The number of points assigned to each criterion as well as the number of criteria depend, in part, on the policy of each academy and specifically, at the departmental level, the Academy Inspector who sets the Assignment Writing Help procedure. For this reason, no overall evaluation of this policy is possible and the affelnet procedure favors more or less social mix according to the setting of the criteria (Fack and Grenet, 2014). Then, the weightings are not stable: the academic inspectors modify these when the affelnet procedure results in dysfunctions – students without affectation -, or when the objective of social mix is not reached, as far as this one subject to a measure. For this reason,
The difficulties of the evaluation of the affelnet procedure imposed a reduction of the analysis at the Paris Academy, limited to Paris itself. This choice is due to the fact that it is an academy where, due to urban concentration, the importance of the well-off and the density of transport networks, social segregation is particularly high (Merle, 2012b 2014 , Fack and Grenet 2014 , Ly, Maurin and Riegert 2014). The affelnet procedure is for this reason more necessary and the effects potentially more important and more measurable.
For the Paris Academy, the criteria for ranking parental applications are known. In 2008, the status of fellow offers 300 points ; achieving good grades, 700 points ; a 50-point sibling match ; the choice of an establishment in the district of his home 400 points [ 3 ] . This presentation of affelnet simplifies the effective procedure of assignment of high school students because the ” formations with particular recruitment “, for example the admission in second in the European sections, are the subject of a specific file and a special procedure called ” pre PAM “. This specific file, which is added to the file submitted by all the students, reduces the transparency of the affelnet procedure since the most sought-after courses are not treated according to the common procedure.
Already reported, a difficulty in analyzing the effects of the affelnet procedure is that the weights associated with the assignment criteria are modified. Thus, from 2009, in the Academy of Paris, the weighting given to academic results increased from 700 to 600 points ; the criterion ” choice of institution in his district ” has been increased from 400 to 600 points ; and the fact of making an unfulfilled first choice or of coming from a private college is no longer penalized, this penalty being considered as religious discrimination by the Halde following complaints lodged by the parents enrolling their children in the schools. private colleges. These weight changes have had a significant impact on the segregation level of Parisian high schools (see next section).
The analysis covered all the Parisian high schools. This choice was potentially problematic as the social recruitments of high schools are differentiated, the general stream, the social recruitment rather easy, the professional stream, recruitment clearly popular ( MEN , 2012, p 102). This differentiation of the sectors and high schools conceals the essential: the public sector educates 78.7% of high school students in vocational streams and 78.1% of high school students in general and technological fields ( MEN, 2012, p. 98). In addition, the private sector enrolls 21.3% of vocational high school students and 21.9% of general and technological students. These proportions are extremely close and moreover stable over time because the rectoral regulation of the creations and deletions of sectors in the public and private sectors is intended in particular to maintain this morphological similarity of the two sectors. This is essential in the analysis: it allows a comparison of the level of social segregation of the public and private sectors by neutralizing structural effects that would be linked to an uneven and unstable distribution of general, technological and professional sectors in the public sectors. and private.
The evaluation of the affelnet procedure was carried out from the measurement of the segregation level of Parisian high schools. The selected period of analysis, from the school years 2006-2007 to 2011-2012, makes it possible to know if the implementation of the affelnet procedure in 2008 had an effect on the evolution of this social segregation. This was measured by calculating the dissimilarity index, a classic measure of school segregation (Jnekins, Micklewright and Schnepf, 2006 ; Merle, 2011). ; Grenet and Fack, 2012).